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This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Failure to realize growth potential in utero and adult obesity in relation to blood pressure in 50 year old Swedish men. Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study.

Barker DJP. Mothers, babies and health in later Life. London: Churchill Livingstone, Lucas A. Programming by Early Nutrition in Man. Ciba Foundation Symposium No.

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Waterland RA, Garza C. Potential mechanisms of metabolic imprinting that lead to chronic disease. Am J Clin Nutr ; Phillips DIW. Insulin resistance as a programmed response to fetal undernutrition. Relation of fetal growth to adult muscle mass and glucose tolerance. Fishing in the stream of diabetes: from measuring insulin to the control of fetal organogenesis.

Biochem Soc Trans ; Fewer nephrons at birth: a missing link in the etiology of essential hypertension?

Maturation of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system | SpringerLink

Am J Kidney Dis ; Impaired synthesis of elastin in walls of aorta and large conduit arteries during early development as an initiating event in pathogenesis of systemic hypertension. Elevated plasma cortisol concentrations: a link between low birthweight and the insulin resistance syndrome? Association between low birthweight and high resting pulse in adult life: is the sympathetic nervous system involved in programming the insulin resistance syndrome?

Increased systolic blood pressure in adult rats induced by fetal exposure to maternal low protein diets. Clin Sci ; The long-term consequences of intra-uterine protein malnutrition for glucose metabolism. Proc Nutr Soc ; Impaired PI 3-kinase activation in adipocytes from early growth-restricted rats.

Am J Physiol ; EE Fetal origins of hyperphagia, obesity, and hypertension and postnatal amplification by hypercaloric nutrition. Fetal origins of adult disease - the hypothesis revisited. Type 2 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: the thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Wilkin TJ. The accelerator hypothesis: weight gain as the missing link between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

McCance RA.

Born 4 Months Early, This Tiny Survivor Beats the Odds - Short Film Showcase

Food, growth and time. Essential hypertension: a disorder of growth with origins in childhood? J Hyperten ; Size at birth and plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations in childhood. The effects of maternal body composition before birth on fetal growth: the Pune Maternal Nutrition and Fetal Growth Study. Maternal birth weight and diet in pregnancy in relation to infant thinness at birth. Br J Obstet Gynaecol ; Rush D. Maternal nutrition and perinatal survival.

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Nutr Rev ; Harding JE. The nutritional basis of the fetal origins of adult disease.

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Int J Epidemiol ; Kramer, MS. In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 3. Oxford: Update software Micronutrients and fetal growth. J Nutr in press. Maternal nutritional status in pregnancy and blood pressure in childhood. Br J Obstet Gynaecol ; Maternal energy stores and diet composition during pregnancy program adolescent blood pressure.

The Regulation and Effects of Myometrial Activity on the Fetus

Glucose tolerance in adults after prenatal exposure to famine. Plasma lipid profiles in adults after prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine. High-meat, low-carbohydrate diet in pregnancy: relation to adult blood pressure in the offspring. Hypertension ; Maternal nutrition in early and late pregnancy in relation to placental and fetal growth. Peditr Res ; 50 Suppl ; 58A. Intake of micronutrient-rich foods in rural Indian mothers is associated with the size of their babies at birth; the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study.

J Nutr ; Effect of diabetes in pregnancy and offspring: follow-up research in the Pima Indians. J Matern-Fetal Med ; 9: Intrauterine exposure to diabetes conveys risks for type 2 diabetes and obesity; a study of discordant sibships. Diabetes ; Birth weight and non-insulin dependent diabetes: thrifty genotype, thrifty phenotype, or surviving small baby genotype? Birthweight and the risk of type 2 diabetes in adult women.

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Ann Int Med ; King H. Epidemiology of glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes in women of childbearing age. Diabetes Care ; 21 Suppl 2 : B9-B Sachdev HPS. Low birth weight in South Asia. Levels of intrauterine growth retardation in developing countries. Gopalan C. Eds: Gillespie S, Haddad L. Yajnik CS.

Lifecycle effects of nutrition and body size on adult adiposity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obes Rev ; 3: Fall CHD. Developing Countries and Affluence in Type 2 Diabetes: the thrifty phenotype. Ed DJP Barker. Br Med Bulletin ; Reddy KS. Cardiovascular diseases in developing countries: dimensions, deter-minants, dynamics and directions for public health action. Pub Hlth Nut ; 5: Global burden of diabetes, ; prevalence, numerical estimates and projections. Diabetes Care ; Fetal growth and glucose and insulin metabolism in four year old Indian children.

Size at birth and plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentra-tions in childhood. The insulin resistance syndrome IRS in eight-year-old Indian children: small at birth, big at 8 years or both? Fetal growth and coronary heart disease in South India. Relation of fetal growth to adult lung function in South India. Thorax ; Blood pressure, arterial compliance and left ventricular mass; no relation to small size at birth in South Indian adults. Heart ; Cardiovascular disease CVD risk factors in young adults and their relationship to anthropometric transition from birth: preliminary findings from Delhi cohort.

Pediatr Res Conference Abstract in press. Relationships of parental size, birth measurements and childhood growth to diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance among young adults in a rural and urban population. Pediatr Res conference abstract in press. Int J Obesity in press. Adiposity and hyperinsulinaemia in Indians are present at birth.

Glucose tolerance and insulin status during pregnancy in South India: relationships to maternal and neonatal body composition. Pediatr Res ; 50 Suppl : 20A. Should we intervene to improve fetal growth? Oxford: Oxford University Press Boyko EJ. Proportion of type 2 diabetes cases resulting from impaired fetal growth. Unravelling the fetal origins hypothesis: is there really an inverse association between birthweight and subsequent blood pressure? Fetal origins of adult disease: strength of effects and biological basis.

The fetus and birth

Int J Epidemiol in press. Neel JV. Am J Hum Genet ; Nutr Rev ; S2-S9. Morton NE. The inheritance of human birth-weight. Ann Hum Genet ; Am J Obstet Gynecol ; Birth weight: nature or nurture? Early Human Dev ; The role of genetic susceptibility in the association of low birthweight with type 2 diabetes. Ed: Barker DJP. The fetal insulin hypothesis: an alternative explanation of the association of low birthweight with diabetes and vascular disease. Nature Genetics ; Mitochondrial variant, thinness at birth and type 2 diabetes.

Association between genetic variation in the gene for insulin-like growth factor-I and low birthweight. The insulin gene VNTR, type 2 diabetes and birth weight. A common mitochondrial DNA variant is associated with insulin resistance in adult life. Testing the fetal origins hypothesis in twins: the Birmingham twin study. Fetal growth and the fetal origins hypothesis in twins; problems and perspectives. Twin Research ; 4: Birth weight of offspring and mortality in the Renfrew and Paisley study: prospective observational study. Pregnancy complications and maternal risk of ischemic heart disease: a retrospective cohort study of , births.

Birth weight of offspring and insulin resistance in late adulthood: cross sectional survey. Type 2 diabetes and low birth weight: the role of paternal inheritance in the association of low birth weight and diabetes. Diabetes ; Parental diabetes and birth weight of offspring: intergenerational cohort study. Parental risk of heavy birth weight child, 8 years after delivery. Pediatr Res ; 50 Suppl : 4A. Am J Epidemiol ; Morris JA. Fetal origin of maturity-onset diabetes mellitus: genetic or environmental cause?

Medical Hypotheses ; The effects of the Pro12A1a polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- g 2 gene on insulin sensitivity and insulin metabolism interact with size at birth. Mean systolic blood pressure and odds ratios for hypertension and incident diabetes in 22, US men aged years 26 Lipids and clotting factors: Although lipids show some associations with size at birth, these are weaker and less consistent.

Arrows indicate average values Adult obesity also adds to, and in some studies interacts with, the effects of low birthweight.