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Some e. And it is plausible to think that Kant required something like reasons-responsiveness—being able to track reasons in support of duty—as a condition for morality actually applying to persons. Historical origins aside, the contemporary appeal of a reasons-responsive theory is in part a matter of accounting for freedom in terms of features of agency that are distinctive of persons. Lots of agents with the capacity for sophisticated goal-directed activity, such as titmice or coyotes, are uncontroversially able to exercise a considerable amount of control over their environments.

As such, there is a clear sense in which they possess a certain kind of freedom. But if one seeks a theory of freedom that explains what is distinctive about the freedom available to persons skeptical worries aside , then it is plausible that this can be found in rational capacities unique to persons.

I take it to be an open question which creatures—actual and possible—are persons. I assume the fictional non-human character Data from Star Trek is a person, as are the Replicants in the film Bladerunner. Moreover, it is not incredible that many actually existing non-human primates and other mammals are persons.

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Naturally, this turns on the philosophical question of what a person is as well as empirical questions about animal cognition. What of the appeal for compatibilists? Why have so many contemporary compatibilists opted for a reasons-responsive theory? This in turn can be explained even if not reduced to a set of counterfactuals about how an agent would have acted had certain reasons been salient that were not salient in her actual context of action. These propositions are not in any way inconsistent with the assumption that at the time an agent acted she was determined.

Determinism is a thesis about what is physically possible for an agent given her exact actual past and the totality of the laws of nature. Determinism is silent as regards truths about how an agent would act were her past or the laws just a bit different than they were. Counterfactuals that postulate non-actual but possible reasons involve antecedents that presuppose, relative to the actual world, that the past is a bit different. Second, as noted when reflecting on the cases of Dandy and Handy, reasons-responsive theories help to show how it is that, when an agent is reasons-responsive, the actions she freely preforms are caused in the right way by resources that are distinctive of persons.

One of the major burdens of any theory of freedom—compatibilist or incompatibilist—is a matter of showing that an agent is the right kind of source of her actions. Many appeal to restrictive views about the metaphysics involved, which along with a requirement of indeterminism might include the notion of agent-causation. This is especially so for incompatibilists.

Reasons-responsive compatibilist theories, however, are seemingly able to draw just upon far more mundane resources. Nevertheless, these resources assign a special role to the agent qua rational being as the source of her action. Moreover, by doing so, reasons-responsive theorists develop a familiar compatibilist strategy of distinguishing between kinds of causes of actions, some of which are freedom-defeating and others that are not.

So as to avoid any misimpressions, and in keeping with my earlier remarks about the general appeal of reasons-responsive theories, it should be emphasized that it is open to incompatibilists seeking to develop a libertarian theory of freedom to adopt a reasons-responsive view. The point of this section was simply to showcase the simple features that make reasons-responsive theories appealing to compatibilists.

These features aid the compatibilists, but they do not entail a compatibilist conclusion. This incompatibilist argument, the Consequence Argument Ginet ; Wiggins, ; van Inwagen , , has it that, under the assumption of determinism, a person is able to do otherwise only if she is able to alter the past or violate a law of nature, neither of which, it seems, an ordinary human person can do.

While many able compatibilists have attempted to refute the Consequence Argument e. What of the freedom that is required for moral responsibility? That freedom, it can be argued, is compatible with determinism even if the freedom to do otherwise is not.


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John Martin Fischer calls this thesis semi-compatibilism , and along with his coauthor Mark Ravizza, has offered the most sustained defense of it Other compatibilists advancing a source compatibilist thesis include Frankfurt [] , McKenna [] and Sartorio [forthcoming]. In this chapter, let us call this sort of compatibilism source compatibilism and the sort that requires the freedom to do otherwise leeway compatibilism.

And call the two sorts of freedom source freedom and leeway freedom. Here is a simple one, Shoot Smith, truncated just for the purposes of our present discussion: Jones seeks to shoot Smith, which he does on his own. As it happens, unknown to Jones, Black wants Jones to shoot Smith and would prefer that Jones do so on his own. But Black arranges things so that, if there is any reason to think that Jones would not shoot Smith, Black would cause Jones maybe by direct manipulation of his brain to shoot Smith. Since Jones acts on his own, Black never intervenes. He thus remains only a counterfactual intervener.

So, granting that he is morally responsible, it appears that leeway freedom is not required for moral responsibility. Some reasons-responsive compatibilists reject it and instead build a reasons-responsive theory of leeway freedom e. These source compatibilists face a striking problem. It looks on its face as if, whatever sort of freedom an agent does possess in a Frankfurt example, it cannot be accounted for in terms of reasons-responsiveness.

It seems that an agent in a Frankfurt example is not reasons-responsive. If she were given different reasons to do otherwise, she would not respond otherwise by acting otherwise. The counterfactual intervener would see to that by causing her to act as she does when she acts on her own for the reasons she actually has. Hence, a reasons-responsive theory of freedom appears ill-suited for the freedom found in a successful Frankfurt example.

Does this mean reasons-responsive compatibilists are forced to defend a leeway theory? That is, they distinguish between an agent-based and a mechanism-based reasons-responsive theory. According to Fischer and Ravizza, an agent in a Frankfurt example is not reasons-responsive because she would not respond otherwise to different reasons by acting otherwise, given the presence of the counterfactual intervener. But now consider the actual causal process that led to the agent acting as she did when she acted on her own.

If we focus upon just this mechanism and then ask if it is reasons-responsive, we will have to test that by considering whether it would respond differently to reasons. But we can only run this test by considering possible situations in which it is allowed to function unimpeded in the presence of different reasons.

Then we can determine how the agent would act by way of her mechanism of action were her mechanism left to function on its own. Thus, Fischer and Ravizza advance compatibilism by way of a mechanism-based reasons-responsive theory of source freedom. Explaining reasons-responsiveness in terms of mechanisms rather than agents gives rise to a range of objections. Some contend that it is counterintuitive and it is better to theorize in terms of agents responding to reasons rather than in terms of mechanisms Wallace Some object that it is just not clear what a mechanism is supposed to be Watson Others claim that the postulation of mechanisms does not do any work in the theory Ginet Finally, others raise more specific worries about how to identify and individuate mechanisms one from the other McKenna But if conditions were different a closed road and no other routes she is familiar with , she would be given reason to deliberate about what other exit she should take.

Her reasons-sensitivity should make room for that. However, if as Fischer and Ravizza would have it, we hold fixed the mechanism of unreflective habit, then we cannot assess how she would respond to reasons in deliberation, since this would not be unreflective habit. The flexibility of the system is thus designed to be greater than the flexibility of the subsystems composing it. The problem for any mechanism-based account of freedom is that it will always risk limiting the freedom-conferring responsiveness of the agent to the responsiveness of the mechanism subsystem by which the agent acts.

If I am correct, then reasons-responsive theories should be developed in agent-based terms rather than mechanism-based resources. See Fischer [forthcoming] for the reply. This, however, leads back to the problem for source compatibilists faced earlier: agent-based reasons-responsive views appear to require leeway freedom. Can a source compatibilist overcome the apparent conflict with constraints on an agent-based reasons-responsive approach?

The crucial question is this: is there a way for a source compatibilist to claim that an agent in a Frankfurt example is reasons-responsive even if, were different reasons put to the agent, the agent would not respond to those reasons by acting differently than she does when the counterfactual intervener remains dormant? As such, in contexts in which the intervener takes over, she would be reacting differently than she did when she produced her actions as a result of her own reasons.

In this way, an agent even in a Frankfurt example is responsive to different reasons, even if her responsiveness would not manifest itself in her acting any differently. Yet a different way to advance an agent-based reasons-responsive approach has been developed by Carolina Sartorio forthcoming.

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Sartorio turns to the metaphysics of causation and relies upon the thesis that absences can be causes or instead quasi-causes. To explain, suppose Jones is not in a Frankfurt example when he decides to shoot Smith and that he is suitably reasons-responsive. Now add the presence of the counterfactual intervener, Black.

This renders the preceding counterfactual false. Were that absence not part of the causal mix, Jones would not have shot Smith on his own. In this way, in acting as he does, Smith is responsive to a range of reasons that include not shooting Smith if his child is with him. This is an elegant proposal. One strategy is to adopt a leeway compatibilist thesis and reject the contention that a free agent in a Frankfurt example is unable to do otherwise e. Nelkin and Vihvelin , , for instance, argue that in a Frankfurt example, an agent retains the uninterfered-with ability to do otherwise when she is left to act on her own.

Yet a third also involves a commitment to source compatibilism, but seeks to explain reasons-responsiveness even in the context of a Frankfurt example by way of agent-based resources e. Some reasons-responsive theorists only gesture in the direction of what is involved in suitable responsiveness to reasons as would be required for a theory of free will and moral responsibility e. But most work out in some detail what responsiveness consists in and how to test for an adequate degree of sensitivity. One way to clarify responsiveness is in terms of the content of the reasons that matter for the ability to act freely.

But in recent times, Susan Wolf proposed such a compatibilist view, which she called the Reason View, in terms of reasons in support of, as she put it, the True and the Good. The capital letters indicate the metaethical commitments Wolf intended. Her blameworthiness is thus dependent on her ability to act for good reasons when she fails to do so. The Wolf-Nelkin reasons-responsive view gives rise to a much-discussed asymmetry thesis: praiseworthiness does not require leeway freedom but blameworthiness does.

If an agent acts in a morally exemplary way for the right reasons and is praiseworthy for it, she does not need leeway freedom, since in acting as she did, she clearly was responsive to good reasons—she actually acted on them. When, on the other hand, an agent does wrong and is a candidate for blameworthiness, her being blameworthy turns on whether she was able to respond to good reasons.

Thus, Wolf and Nelkin are source compatibilists about praiseworthiness and leeway compatibilists about blameworthiness. While the Wolf-Nelkin view is intuitive in certain ways—freedom is about the ability to act for good reasons—it makes room for an unusual result. Suppose that determinism is incompatible with leeway freedom but is not incompatible with source freedom. Then praiseworthiness would be compatible with determinism but blameworthiness would not.

Naturally, Wolf and Nelkin resist this result by defending compatibilism about a reasons-responsive ability to do otherwise. But other reasons-responsive theorists e. The dispute remains highly contested. A different strategy for developing a reasons-responsive theory involves explaining the spectrum of responsiveness to show the way reasons hang together and as well what counts as a sufficient pattern of responsiveness recall our discussion of the cases of Handy and Dandy.

This distinct strategy is not in competition with one that specifies the content of the reasons to which one should be responsive in order to count as suitably free. For an example of a view that joins the two approaches, see Brink and Nelkin []. In a highly influential paper, Bernard Gert and Timothy Duggan explained reasons-responsiveness in terms of patterns of threats and incentives that would be sufficient for an agent to act other than as she does. As explained in the preceding section, they account for reasons-responsiveness in terms of the sensitivity of mechanisms of action.

This is adequate for present purposes.

But suppose also I would be moved to lie if my pea soup told me to do so, or if a Springsteen song was playing on the radio, which I would take as a secret message from Martians, and so on. The problem for the Gert and Duggan proposal, as Fischer and Ravizza put it, is that it relied exclusively on a quantitative assessment of the spectrum of responsiveness required for freedom. So, according to Fischer and Ravizza 71—3 , what is also needed beyond an adequate quantity of reasons-sensitivity is a sanity constraint, which they propose in terms of a hypothetical third-party interviewer seeking to establish whether the agent has a coherent understanding of the world that is grounded in reality.

To this they also add a requirement that an agent be able to grasp moral reasons 77— They do not commit as Wolf and Nelkin do to more substantive metaethical views about morality and reasons. All they require is that an agent be able to understand moral reasons as providing sufficient conditions for action. To develop their reasons-responsive theory, which they call Moderate Reasons-Responsiveness MRR , Fischer and Ravizza distinguish between two different aspects of reasons-responsiveness: reasons-receptivity and reasons-reactivity.

Reasons-receptivity is a matter of recognizing and assessing the reasons an agent takes to be sufficient to act otherwise or instead to persist in acting as she does. Reasons-reactivity is a matter of choosing and acting in accord with the reasons one takes to be sufficient for acting. Susan Wolf draws a similar distinction in developing her view , and other reasons-responsive theorists e. According to Fischer and Ravizza, the spectrum of sensitivity to reasons is asymmetric between the receptivity and the reactivity components. How so? An agent like Dandy must be receptive to a considerable range of sufficient reasons to do otherwise as well as reasons to persist in acting as he does , yet he need only be reactive to a very limited range of reasons.

CHAPTER 5: FREE WILL

Why the asymmetry? One reason is to make room for a familiar sort of blameworthy conduct. Sometimes an agent freely does what she knows to be morally wrong in the face of reasons she herself takes to be good reasons not to act as she does. She might act recklessly or succumb to temptation. In such cases, she is receptive to good reasons to act otherwise, but in fact she does not react to them. If a requirement of reasons-responsiveness for free and responsible action is that an agent is just as reactive to the spectrum of reasons to which she is receptive, then when she fails to react as she knows she should, the theory would have it that she acts unfreely and so is not morally responsible and blameworthy for what she does.

That would count strongly against the theory. It is for this reason that a reasons-responsive theory needs to allow for an asymmetry. Granting that some sort of asymmetry should be accommodated, is it correct that mere weak reactivity is sufficient for acting freely?

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All that Fischer and Ravizza require for weak reactivity is that there is some reason to which an agent is receptive that is such that, if it were present, the agent would react to it and act otherwise. They contend that this is enough to establish that an agent is able to react otherwise to any of the reasons to which she is receptive. But now recall the case of Handy, who suffered from a compulsive handwashing disorder and so was unfree when he washed his hands. Handy was reactive to some reasons to do otherwise.

Recall he would not wash his hands if someone threatened to kill his child should he wash his hands. Still, he was not reactive to a large range of good reasons not to do so—including being exposed to poisonous gas. As such, his freedom was impaired. This criticism is developed by McKenna [] and Mele [].

In reply to Mele, Fischer [ ] grants the point and has revised his view so that what is required is stronger than mere weak reactivity. Regardless, the reactivity component must be moderate enough to display a stable, sane way of relating to a sufficiently robust spectrum of reasons. Why weaker? Recall, as explained two paragraphs back, we want to leave open the possibility of an agent who is receptive to a reason to which, as a matter of fact, she would not be reactive and, as upshot be blameworthy for so acting.

I am indebted to David Brink and Dana Nelkin for an especially fruitful conversation regarding how to clarify the reactivity component. Brink and Nelkin helped me to see that it was too restrictive to require that the receptivity component be weaker. Still, it is important that it may be weaker. It is worth asking why Fischer and Ravizza opted for such a striking asymmetry thesis when a mild proposal like the one I offer here seems an obvious contender. One reason has to do with the battle between compatibilists and incompatibilists.

In all these cases, it is assumed that behavior is affected by the situation, subverting the predictions based on the person's character. Moreover, the volunteers involved in this kind of experiments tend to reject the explanation of their behavior in terms of causes they were not aware of, and instead motivate their choices with different reasons, made up to make their current conduct coherent with their general guidelines. In other words, the subjects refuse to accept the real motivations of their behavior as justifications for it. The mechanisms underlying situationism fall at least partly within the broader category of non-conscious determinants of action and preferences, described as consequences of the automaticity of decision-making processes and of human action.

According to Kihlstrom , automated processes are characterized by: 1 inevitable evocation , that is, specific environmental stimuli give rise to specific responses, whatever the previous mental state of the subject involved; 2 Incorrigible completion , that is, once the automatic processes are triggered, they are carried out according to a defined scheme on which the subject cannot intervene; 3 efficient execution , that is, automatic processes do not require the subject's effort or active participation; 4 parallel processing , that is, automatic processes do not interfere with other simultaneous processes, nor interfered by them.

An extreme theoretical version of the idea of pervasive automaticity was offered by G. According to him, in short, for mental activities, and thought in particular, to count as mental actions, the agent must be able to voluntarily and consciously raise a content of thought. But in fact we cannot form the intention to think a specific thought: to do so, we should already have that thought available for consideration and adoption; and thought seem to come about automatically Strawson, However, this is an indirect critique of the idea of free will, which is not strictly linked to empirical psychology and should be discussed at the philosophical level.

Situationism has certainly improved the knowledge of the motives of human actions. In the light of increasing experimental evidence, it would be an unrealistic claim to think that people are not at all influenced by the circumstances in which they find themselves. Everything contributes and has a weight, but it is necessary to assess the relative importance of different factors, both internal and external to the individual.

The main question is whether at times, when it comes to relevant choices, people can exercise their conscious control and act according to their own free will. In this sense, note that it has always been thought that the character of a person is identifiable and recognizable. Now, the only reliable, though impressionistic and non-scientific, way of inferring a person's character is to observe their behavior and choices so as to find some regularities. If we can identify someone's character, this means that there is a certain regularity and predictability in their behavior.

As a result, it seems that this agent does not decide only on the basis of changing external circumstances, but on the basis of internal processes their character that are fairly stable. Of course, even if human beings are very good at navigating their social environment on the basis of intentional psychology, they can still be the victims of cognitive biases and generally tend to categorize by amplifying differences and underestimating less salient aspects.

To overcome this problem, psychologists themselves have constructed personality profiles to scientifically measure the constant behavioral orientations of individuals. While it is true that the existence of personality traits is controversial, and most personality tests have often been accused of being inaccurate, today we are making great progress in this direction thanks to big data. Gerlach et al. In any case, the idea of character as a stable tendency to react in coherent if not predictable ways to specific situations has now been affirmed, and the relevance of internal processes over external contingencies cannot be denied.

In fact, the success of character-based explanations and predictions could otherwise only be explained by a very unlikely coincidence, by which random circumstances go mostly in the same causal direction as the agent's behavior. Situationists may argue that often one's character is not predictive as their experiments show and that personality profiles are not so reliable Doris, But it's not always like that. Ogien, Those people were not influenced by the situations in which they found themselves—which indeed would have led them to be accomplices or inert spectators, as many other people in that period.

Instead, they showed coherence of character and personality over variable circumstances. Compassionate and courageous people of that kind seem to be a major problem for strong situationism, even if its supporters remain convinced that situationism can respond to this objection cf. Machery, Moreover, the surprising nature of the studies that highlight the role of environmental factors makes us underestimate that often most subjects—but not all—manifest the situation effect.

Therefore, in general, the empirical basis cannot be used to affirm that the internal processes of the subject, supposedly underlying free will, are never at work. Another aspect concerns the fact that choices set up in laboratory experiments are not always relevant or typical of real life, and therefore it is more plausible that they may be influenced by contextual factors. This is not true, however, for the best known experiments.

Consider, for example, the famous study showing how the participants' degree of altruism the participants being seminarists varied based on whether they were or weren't in a hurry due to some important commitment Darley and Batson, On a different level, we cannot fail to mention the issue of the reproducibility of social-behavior findings published in peer-reviewed journals Open Science Collaboration, And other studies also indicate that the arbitrary choices made by researchers in their study can increase false positives Simmons et al.

Interestingly, the authors of the latter study have created a prediction market, assembling a panel of about 80 psychologists and economists. One could compare the relationship between the description of unconscious subpersonal mental mechanisms and intentional psychology with that between relativistic mechanics and classical mechanics. When it comes to the description of the human being, moreover, there is also a subjective element, which might lead to prefer, for many reasons, the use of common sense in some areas of psychology.

At the bodily level, we can measure the glycemic level of a subject and identify limits above and below which performance usually decreases and the state of health declines. The same applies to environmental parameters such as atmospheric temperature or the amount of oxygen.

But even if we can follow the numerical parameters at all times, individual subjective states may vary compared to the recorded data, so that an individual may remain active even with a low reserve of sugars and under oppressive heat.

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Conversely, under formally ideal conditions, others may suffer from the cold or have a deficiency of organic resources. In other words, there is a central range of values for those parameters, so that only a major shift to either extreme significantly influences macroscopic behaviors. The same may hold for the fine effects detected in experiments in which people do not seem and probably are not fully free, conscious and rational in their choices. Significant interpersonal and social interactions could fall within that central macroscopic range of values of relevant parameters in which behavior is approximately free, conscious, and rational.

On the other hand, the acquisitions of situationism can also be considered a useful cognitive tool in order to make our behaviors less exposed to contingencies and more consistent with our deep motivations. This can happen, for example, in the case of the previously quoted seminarist experiment. Knowing that being in a hurry or even late for an important commitment a pilot being expected at the airport prevents us from acknowledging the urgent needs of others should induce people who want to be sensitive to the needs of others to leave home earlier, so as not to ignore any requests for help.

Some studies tell us that this awareness is indeed in place Beaman et al. Finally, there is a line of research that, while taking seriously the non-conscious functioning of our brain, sees it as the result of conscious learning process, according to an Aristotelian approach revised in the light of new neuroscientific knowledge Suhler and Churchland, ; Churchland and Suhler, In particular, the proponents argue that the reward system, which has so much weight in our choices, is part of us, even if it acts in a mainly automatic way; it can be educated and receives continuous feedbacks.

Our choices are authentic, coming from inside and not as the effect of external circumstances, because we are our brain. According to advocates of this perspective, through the reward system, the very feeling of intense and prolonged effort can become rewarding in itself. This observation of neuronal activations indicates both a robust ability to control and the fact that such ability can be strengthened through reinforcement.

Certainly, self-control and free will do not only depend on conscious processes. According to Levy, the global workspace model implies that consciousness makes a difference to our choices, even if non-conscious mental states also influence our behavior. Levy's examples on free will include the observation made by Penfield , according to which patients affected by an epileptic attack follow a habitual and stereotyped pattern of behavior but lose the ability to make decisions with respect to situations that they have never encountered before.

This inability can be explained by the impossibility of consciously accessing a wide range of information, while in turn explaining the rigidity of behavior during epileptic attacks. The famous judicial case of somnambulistic violence Broughton et al. An otherwise perfectly healthy person got out of bed in his sleep and went to the house of his parents-in-law and stabbed them, without ever leaving the sleepwalking state, even though the two victims were screaming and tried to defend themselves.

The subject was in a situation where he did not understand the contradiction between his beliefs and values on the one hand and his behavior on the other. The actions of the subject in that altered state of consciousness were not expressive of, nor controlled by, a sufficiently broad spectrum of his attitudes, given that those attitudes made him the person he used to be. Unaltered consciousness, in fact, gives control to the agent as a whole by integrating all the information available. Only consciousness in its normal functioning allows for access to, and the evaluation of, not only the perceptive inputs but also the motivations, beliefs and values of the subject, in the process that is typically associated to free will.

In this sense, the idea that there must be conscious choices for behavior to be considered free has not only a philosophical value but refers to the effective functioning of our brain. For example, the acquisition of new skills requires the participation of areas associated to the global workspace, in particular large areas of the cortex, but once the new skills are acquired the areas that are activated by their use are greatly reduced Haier et al. An action that involves the use of those skills can be considered free though not necessarily even in subsequent situations because the agent had previously consciously acquired them.

To the present state of knowledge, all this appears to be true. However, this does not mean that all the evidence supporting modular epiphenomenalism, despite its limits, can be ignored. Such evidence does not deny free will for the factual and conceptual reasons outlined so far, but it does not leave things as they were before situationism either. Taking up the conditions of free will exposed at the beginning, many philosophers support what can be called reasons accounts of free will Wolf, ; Wallace, ; Fischer and Ravizza, ; Arpaly, Based on these accounts, the ability of the agent to respond appropriately to reasons is what gives the subject the control typical of free will and necessary for moral responsibility.

The reasons accounts have many points in their favor, starting from the adherence to the intuitive idea of free will. But they are also the ones that are most often challenged by situationism, as situationism prima facie shows a degree of irrationality in our behavior or at least a rationality that is too low to be able to affirm that we have free will. Many objections and criticisms can be made to the general argument of situationism, that is, that we do not enjoy free will as it is classically understood.

However, as Vargas , p. Two groups of students are subjected to a test in which they have to underline the pronouns used in the report of a school trip us, ours, me, my. In the light of all this, Vargas suggests we recast reasons accounts and give up some of the suppositions that are usually implied by such accounts. The concept of free will has generally been challenged on the metaphysical front by the apparent impossibility of jointly supporting the truth of determinism and the existence of freedom.

In order to do so, compatibilism has been a widespread philosophical stance on this topic. Advances in psychological and neuroscientific research have now shifted the challenge to free will from the metaphysical to the epistemological level. The most recent expression of this challenge goes under the name of epiphenomenalism, understood as the thesis according to which the subject's conscious decision-making guiding their behavior is only apparent. A series of studies have focused on the brain mechanisms of action initiation and on the timing of consciousness, using brain-activity probing techniques.

Another line of studies—recently called situationism—has instead investigated the unconscious influence of environmental stimuli and situations on the subject's behavior, which are capable of conditioning the subject's choices without them being aware of it. In my article, I showed that Libet's experiments and those that followed are not conclusive for various reasons and therefore do not call into question the idea of freedom, at least not in the situations, which cannot be tested with the current brain-imaging techniques, where the choice to be made is significant.

As for situationism, its challenge to free will seems to be more insidious. Even if the replicability of many studies is low or controversial, it does not seem possible to deny that priming effects are significantly at work, at least in some circumstances. The choices made under the implied push of environmental elements that we usually consider of little importance can hardly be defined as free according to the definitions proposed at the beginning of the paper. There are, however, numerous counter-examples to situationism. Furthermore, it is reasonable to assume that the subjects informed of the priming effect, or anyway educated of the risk of being conditioned by the environment, can increase the degree of freedom of their choices, even in cases where situationism would otherwise be effective.

Therefore, one can reasonably conclude that the data available are not sufficient to deny that we are endowed with free will in the form of conscious control that makes us morally responsible for what we do. Rather, there are enough data to say that we are not always free, and in any case not free in the same way every time we make a choice. In different situations, also based on our explicit and conscious effort, our degree of freedom can vary. Accordingly, one can think of free will as an operationalized concept, which comes in degrees and might be measured with proper tests and neuropsychological means, as I proposed elsewhere Lavazza and Inglese, The author confirms being the sole contributor of this work and has approved it for publication.

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