Youcai, L. Study on hydrometallurgical process and kinetics of manganese extraction from low-grade manganese carbonate ores. International Journal of Mining Science and Technology. Yuanbo, Z. Manganese extraction by sulfur-based reduction roasting—acid leaching from low-grade manganese oxide ores. Zhang, W. Zhao, Y. Thermal analysis and kinetic modeling of manganese oxide ore reduction using biomass straw as reductant. Akreditasi S2 Vol. User Username Password Remember me. Language Select Language English Indonesian. Journal Help. Notifications View Subscribe.
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Abstract The leaching of manganese from manganese dioxide ores in sulfuric acid solution was investigated. Keywords : l eaching, m anganese ore, m anganese sulfate, s ulfuric acid ABSTRAK Proses pelindian mangan dari bijih mangan dioksida dalam larutan asam sulfat telah berhasil dilakukan. Kata kunci : asam sulfat, bijih mangan, pelindian, mangan sulfat. Keywords leaching, manganese ore, manganese sulfate, sulfuric acid. In situ observation of hot tearing formation in succinonitrile-acetone. Eskin, D. Mechanical properties in the semi-solid state and hot tearing of aluminium alloys.
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Solidification of A alloy in a linear electromagnetic stirrer. Solid State Phenom. Flemings, M. Behavior of metal alloys in the semisolid state. B 22 , — Ferrante, M. Dahle, A. Development of strength in solidifying aluminium alloys. Martin, C. Bigot, R. Characterisation of semi-solid material mechanical behaviour by indentation test.
Doherty, R. Microstructure of stir-cast metals. Ji, S.
The fragmentation of primary dendrites during shearing in semisolid processing. Ananiev, S. Dendrite fragmentation by catastrophic elastic remelting. Swann, P.
Dislocation substructure vs transgranular stress corrosion susceptibility of single phase alloys. Corrosion 19 , t—t Drakopoulos, M. Synchrotron Radiat. Majmudar, T. Contact force measurements and stress-induced anisotropy in granular materials.
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E 66 , Yuan, L. Exploring dendrite coherency with the discrete element method. Dexter, A. Fallet, A. Influence of barium addition on the microstructure and the rheological behaviour of partially solidified Al—Cu alloys. Joseph, B. Liquid metal embrittlement: A state-of-the-art appraisal. Phillion, A. In situ X-ray observation of semi-solid deformation and failure in Al—Cu alloys.
Asaro, R. Interface morphology development during stress corrosion cracking: Part I. Via surface diffusion. Koehn, D. Rice, J. Puncreobutr, C. Influence of Fe-rich intermetallics on solidification defects in Al—Si—Cu alloys. Time-resolved synchrotron tomographic quantification of deformation-induced flow in a semi-solid equiaxed dendritic Al—Cu alloy.
Bower, A. Indentation of a power law creeping solid. A , 97— Stampanoni, M. Trends in synchrotron-based tomographic imaging: the SLS experience. SPIE M Fife, J. Development of a laser-based heating system for in situ synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy. Titarenko, S. A ring artifact suppression algorithm based on a priori information. Download references. We also thank Norsk Hydro, London for materials. Rockett and S. Mikuljan are gratefully acknowledged. Correspondence to P. Longitudinal slices from the 3D reconstructed data are shown.
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Skip to main content. Subjects Mechanical properties Metals and alloys. Abstract Grain refinement via semi-solid deformation is desired to obtain superior mechanical properties of cast components. Results In situ observation The in situ tomographic observations of indentation into a semi-solid alloy are shown in Fig.
Figure 1: Semi-solid indentation of globular microstructures. Full size image. Figure 2: 3D visualization of transgranular liquation cracking. Figure 3: Log-normal distribution of cracked grains. Table 1 Comparison of cracking data for different deformation speeds. Full size table. Figure 4: Influence of solid fraction. Figure 5: Mechanism of transgranular liquation cracking. The mineral reference standards for EDS analysis were gold, silver, platinum, copper, quartz, galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite and wollastonite.
Attention was paid to the morphology, shape and compositions of the solid crystallized phases; the presence of crystals was homogeneous in composition. It must be stressed that it is possible to confirm the equilibrium achievement by changing the equilibration time variation to confirm that no further changes take place with time. Another test of the equilibrium achievement is by confirming the chemical homogeneity of phases and samples The advantage of this experimental technique is that each experiment provides information on the liquidus composition and on the compositions of the solid phases formed.
Each phase composition given in Table 2 is an average of up to three compositions measured in various locations within that phase. As the FeO concentrations in the present system in air are small all iron is represented as ferric oxide in this article "Fe 2 O 3 ". This pseudo-ternary section has the following primary fields:.
Figure 4 shows that the phase equilibria in this system is dominated by the phases of high melting point, spinel and zincite. The SEM-EDS measurements of the glass compositions were sufficient to construct liquidus surfaces in these primary phase fields. As indicated, the general ternary phase diagram rules can be applied to the zincite and spinel primary phase fields of the pseudo-ternary section; then, the compositions and proportions of the phases present in a slag of a particular overall composition can be derived from the diagram for any temperature using tie-line.
The ternary phase diagram rules cannot be applied in the melilite and calcium silicate primary fields, as the liquid and solid compositions do not lie on the pseudo-ternary section; however, the liquidus temperatures for compositions in these primary fields can be defined. These are the primary phase fields directly relevant to lead and zinc sinters.
As the systems are cooled to temperatures below the liquidus, the remaining liquid phase becomes enriched in PbO and the liquid compositions approach those described by the PbO-CaO-SiO 2 ternary system. Examples of microstructures observed at different temperatures for slag sample number 23 are presented in Figure 5. The crystallization of this sample shows that the first solid to form is spinel, when the liquid compositions reach the boundary line of spinel-zincite there is a coprecipitation of spinel and zincite.
As the cooling of the sample continues to point E in the phase diagram, melilite starts to precipitate and the liquid composition leaves the composition of the pseudo-ternary section. S: spinel, Z: zincite. It is observed that there are three phases in equilibrium: spinel S , glass, and gray oval precipitates corresponding to zincite Z. The crystallization of sample 24 is illustrated in Figure 6.
Zincite is the first solid to form Figure 6a. XRD analysis was used to confirm the phase identification. The lead blast furnace is a reactor where the charge moves through a vertical shaft in counter-current to the ascending reducing gas flow. The produced liquid phases slag, matte, speiss and bullion are collected in the furnace crucible and separated by density gradient.
The sinter produced in Mexico has historically been different from that form around the world in that the Mexican sinter contains high concentrations of silver and bismuth. The recovery of precious metals during lead production in a blast furnace makes this process more profitable.
Losses of silver and lead are common in this process and can be due to both physical and chemical phenomena. Lead can be trapped as metallic particles in the slag 11 , due to its composition and viscosity. The information provided in the pseudo-ternary section of the slag system can be used in practical applications to predict the effect on the slag viscosity of increasing ZnO content. The compositions of the liquid phase were used to estimate their viscosity using the FACTSage program 8. Figure 9 shows the changes during cooling in the viscosity of the liquid phase, in terms of temperature and ZnO content, for both slags, with low and high ZnO content.
It is evident that increasing the ZnO content in the slag increases the viscosity and, therefore, the possibility that valuable metals can be trapped in the slags during the tapping stage is also increased. An application of the phase diagram is the estimation of the composition of the liquid phase that remains once the crystallization process begins; then, its viscosity can be calculated by commercial software.