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They were used to defoliate large parts of the countryside to prevent the Viet Cong from being able to hide their weapons and encampments under the foliage. These chemicals continue to change the landscape, cause diseases and birth defects, and poison the food chain. Early in the American military effort, it was decided that since the enemy were hiding their activities under triple-canopy jungle, a useful first step might be to defoliate certain areas.

This was especially true of growth surrounding bases both large and small in what became known as Operation Ranch Hand. Corporations like Dow Chemical Company and Monsanto were given the task of developing herbicides for this purpose. American officials also pointed out that the British had previously used 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D virtually identical to America's use in Vietnam on a large scale throughout the Malayan Emergency in the s in order to destroy bushes, crops, and trees in effort to deny communist insurgents the concealment they needed to ambush passing convoys.

Kennedy on 24 November , that "[t]he use of defoliant does not violate any rule of international law concerning the conduct of chemical warfare and is an accepted tactic of war.


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Precedent has been established by the British during the emergency in Malaya in their use of aircraft for destroying crops by chemical spraying. The defoliants, which were distributed in drums marked with color-coded bands, included the " Rainbow Herbicides "— Agent Pink , Agent Green , Agent Purple , Agent Blue , Agent White , and most famously, Agent Orange , which included dioxin as a byproduct of its manufacture. About 11—12 million gallons Navy patrol boats were vulnerable to attack from the undergrowth at the water's edge.

In and , the Kennedy administration authorized the use of chemicals to destroy rice crops. Air Force sprayed 20 million U. Another purpose of herbicide use was to drive civilian populations into RVN-controlled areas. Vietnamese victims affected by Agent Orange attempted a class action lawsuit against Dow Chemical and other U. Weinstein dismissed their case. In some areas of southern Vietnam, dioxin levels remain at over times the accepted international standard.

In , Anh Duc Ngo and colleagues of the University of Texas Health Science Center published a meta-analysis that exposed a large amount of heterogeneity different findings between studies, a finding consistent with a lack of consensus on the issue on the effect of Agent Orange in Vietnam. There is data near the threshold of statistical significance suggesting Agent Orange contributes to still-births, cleft palate, and neural tube defects , with spina bifida being the most statistically significant defect.

Veterans Administration has listed prostate cancer , respiratory cancers , multiple myeloma , Diabetes mellitus type 2 , B-cell lymphomas , soft-tissue sarcoma , chloracne , porphyria cutanea tarda , peripheral neuropathy , and spina bifida in children of veterans exposed to Agent Orange. Estimates of the number of casualties vary, with one source suggesting up to 3. The military forces of South Vietnam suffered an estimated , killed between and and additional deaths from to and in Defense Department officials believed that these body count figures need to be deflated by 30 percent.

Between , [61] and , [62] Cambodians were estimated to have died during the war including between 50, and , combatants and civilians from US bombings. Unexploded ordnance , mostly from U. According to the Vietnamese government, ordnance has killed some 42, people since the war officially ended. The Vietnam War has been featured extensively in television, film, video games, music and literature in the participant countries.

In Vietnam the diary has often been compared to The Diary of Anne Frank and both are used in literary education. In American popular culture, the "Crazy Vietnam Veteran", who was suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder , became a common stock character after the war. The modern classical composer George Crumb composed a string quartet, a threnody , regarding the war in titled Black Angels. Myths play a central role in the historiography of the Vietnam War, and have become a part of the culture of the United States.

44 Declassified Vietnam War Photos The Public Wasn't Meant To See

Much like the general historiography of the war, discussion of myth has focused on US experiences, but changing myths of war have also played a role in Vietnamese and Australian historiography. Recent scholarship has focused on "myth-busting", [] attacking the previous orthodox and revisionist schools of American historiography of the Vietnam War. This scholarship challenges myths about American society and soldiery in the Vietnam War. Kuzmarov in The Myth of the Addicted Army: Vietnam and the Modern War on Drugs challenges the popular and Hollywood narrative that US soldiers were heavy drug users, [] in particular the notion that the My Lai massacre was caused by drug use.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For a full history of wars in Vietnam, see List of wars involving Vietnam. This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings.

January Supported by:. Kennedy Lyndon B. Weyand Paul D. Momyer John S. McCain Jr. South Vietnam: , 1,, —75 [21] United States: 2,, in Vietnam total Peak: , April [22] [23] Khmer Republic: , [24] Laos: 72, Royal Army and Hmong militia [25] [26] South Korea: 48, per year , , total Thailand: 32, per year in Vietnam [27] and Laos [28] Australia: 50, total Peak: 7, combat troops New Zealand: 3, total Peak: combat troops [13] Philippines: 2, Vietnamese civilian dead : ,—2,, [30] [57] [58] Vietnamese total dead : , [29] —3,, [59] Cambodian Civil War dead : ,—, [60] [61] [62] Laotian Civil War dead : 20,—62, [59] Non-Indochinese military dead : 65, Total dead : 1,,—4,, For more information see Vietnam War casualties and Aircraft losses of the Vietnam War.

Indochina Wars. Military engagements during the Vietnam War. Massacres of the Vietnam War. Further information: Terminology of the Vietnam War.

Roots of the Vietnam War

Main articles: Viet Cong and War in Vietnam — Main article: Joint warfare in South Vietnam, — Main article: Gulf of Tonkin incident. Further information: Credibility gap. Play media. Main article: Laotian Civil War. Main article: Fall of Saigon. Further information: Operation Frequent Wind. See also: Russell Tribunal and Fulbright Hearings. See also: China in the Vietnam War. See also: Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.

Main article: South Korea in the Vietnam War. Main article: Thailand in the Vietnam War. Main article: Republic of China in the Vietnam War. Main article: Canada and the Vietnam War. See also: List of massacres in Vietnam. Main article: Weapons of the Vietnam War. Further information: Mayaguez incident and Indochina refugee crisis. Main article: Vietnam War casualties.

See also: Vietnam War body count controversy. Vietnam portal United States portal War portal s portal s portal s portal. Fitzgibbon's family the start date of the Vietnam War according to the US government was officially changed to 1 November Retrieved 20 July Similar Swedish aid was to go to Cambodian and Laotian civilians affected by the Indochinese fighting.

This support was primarily humanitarian in nature and included no military aid. Area Handbook for Brazil , p. University of Malaya Student Repository. Retrieved 17 October Archived PDF from the original on 16 October The Tunku had been personally responsible for Malaya's partisan support of the South Vietnamese regime in its fight against the Vietcong and, in reply to a Parliamentary question on 6 February , he had listed all the used weapons and equipment of the Royal Malaya Police given to Saigon.

These included a total of 45, single-barrel shotguns, armoured cars and smaller numbers of carbines and pistols. Writing in , he revealed that "we had clandestinely been giving 'aid' to Vietnam since early Published American archival sources now reveal that the actual Malaysian contributions to the war effort in Vietnam included the following: "over 5, Vietnamese officers trained in Malaysia; training of U.

It is undeniable that the Government's policy of supporting the South Vietnamese regime with arms, equipment and training was regarded by some quarters, especially the Opposition parties, as a form of interfering in the internal affairs of that country and the Tunku's valiant efforts to defend it were not convincing enough, from a purely foreign policy standpoint.

Reproduced on mtholyoke. Accessed 5 September The Scarecrow Press. Toledo Blade. Retrieved 24 December China's Foreign Relations. China and Vietnam. Tucker Tracks of the bear: Soviet imprints in the seventies. NK News. Retrieved 3 October Archived from the original on 2 December Retrieved 26 April Archived from the original on 17 November Retrieved 31 May Archived from the original on 2 August Retrieved 2 August Ministry of Defence , Government of Vietnam.

Retrieved 11 June America in Vietnam. Oxford University Press. A History of the World , Routledge, Dunnigan; Albert A. Nofi BBC News Online. Retrieved 18 October J , "Table 6. Associated Press. National Archives. April 29, Accessed July 13, Department of Veterans Affairs. May Archived from the original PDF on 24 January Congressional Research Service.

Koch Vision. Event occurs at minutes. AuthorHouse 21 March Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 29 June New Zealand and the Vietnam War. Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 10 June Archived from the original on 29 October Retrieved 24 February Embassy of South Vietnam. March The New York Times. The Vietnamese government officially claimed a rough estimate of 2 million civilian deaths, but it did not divide these deaths between those of North and South Vietnam.

Agent Orange

British Medical Journal. Retrieved 5 January From to , data from the surveys indicated an estimated 5. Forced Migration and Mortality. National Academies Press. As best as can now be estimated, over two million Cambodians died during the s because of the political events of the decade, the vast majority of them during the mere four years of the 'Khmer Rouge' regime.

Subsequent reevaluations of the demographic data situated the death toll for the [civil war] in the order of , or less. Paige Yale University Southeast Asia Studies. An estimated , excess deaths. We have modeled the highest mortality that we can justify for the early s. Paris: L'Harmattan.

Retrieved 5 March Retrieved 17 January BBC News. The Vietnam War from the Other Side. Retrieved 1 June Archived from the original on 26 February South End Press.

55. The Vietnam War

Brookings Institution. Retrieved 12 June Kissinger's Year: Phoenix Press. Retrieved 18 August Talks at google. The History Place. Retrieved 13 May Involvement in the Franco-Viet Minh War', p. Routledge Gravel, ed. Wilson Center. Retrieved 20 May Selling "Operation Passage to Freedom": Dr. University of New Orleans. Murti, Asian Publishing House, Archived from the original on 27 May Retrieved 11 May Price Far Eastern Survey.

The Black Book of Communism. Harvard University Press. Vietnam Studies Group. Archived from the original on 20 April Retrieved 15 July Vu Tuong : There is no reason to expect, and no evidence that I have seen to demonstrate, that the actual executions were less than planned; in fact the executions perhaps exceeded the plan if we consider two following factors.

First, this decree was issued in for the rent and interest reduction campaign that preceded the far more radical land redistribution and party rectification campaigns or waves that followed during — Second, the decree was meant to apply to free areas under the control of the Viet Minh government , not to the areas under French control that would be liberated in — and that would experience a far more violent struggle. Thus the number of 13, executed people seems to be a low-end estimate of the real number. In this paper Moise 7—9 modified his earlier estimate in his book which was 5, and accepted an estimate close to 15, executions.

Moise made the case based on Hungarian reports provided by Balazs, but the document I cited above offers more direct evidence for his revised estimate. This document also suggests that the total number should be adjusted up some more, taking into consideration the later radical phase of the campaign, the unauthorized killings at the local level, and the suicides following arrest and torture the central government bore less direct responsibility for these cases, however. Szalontai, Balazs November Cold War History. Vu, Tuong Cambridge University Press. Clearly Vietnamese socialism followed a moderate path relative to China.

Yet the Vietnamese 'land reform' campaign Mandate for Change. Garden City, NJ. University Press of America. South Vietnam, which had not signed the Geneva Accords, did not believe the Communists in North Vietnam would allow a fair election. With the French gone, a return to the traditional power struggle between north and south had begun again. Speech to the American Friends of Vietnam, June Retrieved 31 October University Press of Kansas. Kennedy and Vietnam Presidential Studies Quarterly. A Grand Delusion , Basic Books, The New York Review of Books.

Retrieved 2 December Boston, Massachusetts Beacon Press, , vol. Swarthmore College Peace Collection. Archived from the original on 3 August Was Kennedy Planning to Pull out of Vietnam? New York City. Kennedy Library, , Tape V, Reel 1. Johnson viewed many members that he inherited from Kennedy's cabinet with distrust because he had never penetrated their circle during Kennedy's presidency; to Johnson's mind, those like W.

Averell Harriman and Dean Acheson spoke a different language. I've told you that when I want you I'll call you. Before a small group, including Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. Speaking through an interpreter, a local guard explained to me that a handful of Viet Cong agents had entered the hamlet one night and told the peasants to tear it down and return to their native villages.

The peasants complied without question. The World Transformed — to the Present.


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  5. New York: Oxford. America Divided: The Civil War of the s. Retrieved 13 September August Archived from the original on 26 April Retrieved 7 May Calculating U. The Asia-Pacific Journal. Retrieved 18 September Curtis E LeMay. BACM Research. Lewis, Delta Books, Retrieved 17 June Pew Research Center. October Department of Defense, U. Retrieved 2 May Retrieved 8 June Alfred A.

    Ft Bragg, CA: Blurb. Council on Foreign Relations. Univ of North Carolina Press. CIA and the Vietnam Policymakers pp. Martin's Griffin. By Kolko Gabriel. The China Quarterly. Lyndon Johnson's War. New York, W. Norton, , p. Retrieved 8 October International Security.

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    Archived from the original on 31 August NYU Press. Vietnam: The Politics of Bureaucratic Socialism. Foreign Affairs. Stennis MS and Richard B. Russell Jr. Ford MI , and Leslie C. Arends IL. Arends and Ford were leaders of the Republican minority and the other three were Democrats on either the Armed Services or Appropriations committees.

    See also Part 1 Part 2 Part 3. Cook, ed. Available online at: www. Nguyen Co Thach recalls: "Nuon Chea has asked for help and we have liberated five provinces of Cambodia in ten days. Fighting for time. Doyle, Edward, —, Boston Publishing Company. Boston, MA: Boston Pub. Nixon a Presidency Revealed. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Herring, America's Longest War 2nd ed. Archived from the original on 20 January Archived from the original on 14 December Retrieved 22 June Archived from the original on 11 August Retrieved 11 August Boston: Boston Publishing Company, , p.

    The Western Political Quarterly. Zimmer, The Vietnam War Debate ; pp. Greenwich Publishing. Archived from the original on 11 January Archived from the original on 22 November Retrieved 27 March Asia Times Atimes. Archived from the original on 5 October RU: rus. Retrieved 26 May MiG Aces of the Vietnam War. Bloomsbury Publishing. Grada Publishing, a. Journal of Socialist Theory. Journal of Military History. Revista Vietnam. Ruinas Digitales. Retrieved 6 August German Studies Review.

    Cold War International History Project. Working Paper Romania under Communism: Paradox and Degeneration. Government Printing Office. Rand Corporation. Donga Ilbo. Retrieved 17 July Retrieved 5 June University of California Press. Retrieved 1 July Vietnam Veterans of Australia Association. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. Ballantine books. University of Michigan. Mount Invisible and inaudible in Washington: American policies toward Canada.

    UBC Press.

    Accessibility Links

    The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 30 September Review by The Manitoba Historical Society. Solis Retrieved 14 September Weiss, Mitch. New York: Little, Brown. The Vietnam War. Retrieved 20 June Crimes of War. Archived from the original on 19 October Retrieved 5 October Cornell University Press. Melbourne University Publishing. The New Yorker. Retrieved 20 November Central Intelligence Agency.

    Hankyoreh in Korean. Retrieved 8 September Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Retrieved 4 January Houston Chronicle. Weekly Standard. Retrieved 19 June The Japan Times Online. Rees 27 April Ngo Dinh Nhu, who exerted political power in Vietnam, dies at 87". The Washington Post.

    Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 28 May Los Angeles Times. African-American Involvement in the Vietnam War aavw. Random House. Epigraph, xv—xvii. Working-Class War. Neil Sheehan, ebook, p. Enigma Books. Chivers 2 November Simon and Schuster. New York p. Communications Security; the David G.

    Retrieved 19 September The United Nations Office at Geneva. United Nations. November Retrieved 20 September Encyclopedia of world constitutions. Infobase Publishing. RAND Corporation. A study by Jacqueline Desbarats and Karl D. Jackson estimated that 65, South Vietnamese were executed for political reasons between and , based on a survey of Vietnamese refugees who claimed to have personally witnessed 47 executions. However, "their methodology was reviewed and criticized as invalid by authors Gareth Porter and James Roberts. Rather than arguing that this duplication rate proves there were very few executions in post-war Vietnam, Porter and Roberts suggest it is an artifact of the self-selected nature of the participants in the Desbarats-Jackson study, as the authors followed subjects's recommendations on other refugees to interview.

    See Elliot, Duong Van Mai Porter, Gareth; Roberts, James Summer Pacific Affairs. The Indochina Newsletter. Retrieved 1 September Retrieved 26 March Rolling Stone. Retrieved 25 April As 32d General Assembly Opens". The range based on the figures above extends from a minimum of 1. See: Seybolt, Taylor B. See Kiernan, Ben December Critical Asian Studies. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. University of North Carolina Press.

    Stephen Castles, University of Oxford. Mark J. Miller, University of Delaware. July Zed Books. See generally Nghia M. Roberts, and Tuan V. Oxford University Press, 13 Feb. Charles Ornstein, Hannah Fresques. Retrieved 23 February Samuel B. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press, University of Virginia Press. Univ of Massachusetts Press. The Baltimore Sun Times. Archived from the original on 5 June Archived from the original on 9 May Retrieved 17 May Stanford University. Fox News. Inter Press Service. Digital History.

    ABC News. Retrieved 26 February Pacific News Service. Robert D. Event occurs at Retrieved 3 June The Bulletin. Bend, OR. The Times-News. Hendersonville, NC. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 4 September Martin 13 November In his page judgment, Weinstein observed: "Despite the fact that Congress and the President were fully advised of a substantial belief that the herbicide spraying in Vietnam was a violation of international law, they acted on their view that it was not a violation at the time. Embryo Project Encyclopedia. International Journal of Epidemiology.

    Volume Two. Santa Barbara, CA, p. Ministry of National Defense — Government of Vietnam. Schwarzkopf makes it clear he's not repeating a blunder made in Vietnam". April Norman Schwarzkopf with Peter Petre". By anti-war protests were gathering momentum in Australia. Opposition to conscription mounted, as more people came to believe the war could not be won.

    A "Don't register" campaign to dissuade young men from registering for conscription gained increasing support and some of the protests grew violent. The US government began to implement a policy of "Vietnamisation'', the term coined for a gradual withdrawal of US forces that would leave the war in the hands of the South Vietnamese. With the start of the phased withdrawals, the emphasis of the activities of the Australians in Phuoc Tuy province shifted to the provision of training to the South Vietnamese Regional and Popular Forces.

    While the invasion succeeded in capturing large quantities of North Vietnamese arms, destroying bunkers and sanctuaries, and killing enemy soldiers, it ultimately proved disastrous. By bringing combat into Cambodia, the invasion drove many people to join the underground opposition, the Khmer Rouge, irreparably weakening the Cambodian government.

    Vietnam War in 13 Minutes

    When the Khmer Rouge came to power in April , it imposed a cruel and repressive regime that killed several million Cambodians and left the country with internal conflict that continues today. The extension of the war into a sovereign state, formally neutral, inflamed anti-war sentiment in the United States and provided the impetus for further anti-war demonstrations in Australia.

    In the well-known Moratorium marches of and , more than , people gathered to protest against the war, in cities and towns throughout the country. By late Australia had also begun to wind down its military effort in Vietnam. The 8th Battalion departed in November and was not replaced , but, to make up for the decrease in troop numbers, the Team's strength was increased and its efforts became concentrated in Phuoc Tuy province. The withdrawal of troops and all air units continued throughout — the last battalion left Nui Dat on 7 November, while a handful of advisers belonging to the Team remained in Vietnam the following year.

    In December they became the last Australian troops to come home, with their unit having seen continuous service in South Vietnam for ten and a half years. The only combat troops remaining in Vietnam were a platoon guarding the Australian embassy in Saigon this was withdrawn in June In early the communists launched a major offensive in the north of South Vietnam, resulting in the fall of Saigon on 30 April. During April a RAAF detachment of 7—8 Hercules transports flew humanitarian missions to aid civilian refugees displaced by the fighting and carried out the evacuation of Vietnamese orphans Operation Babylift , before finally taking out embassy staff on 25 April.

    Many draft resisters, conscientious objectors, and protesters were fined or gaoled, while some soldiers met a hostile reception on their return home. Peter Dennis et al. Vietnam War — Open gallery. Overview From the time of the arrival of the first members of the Team in almost 60, Australians, including ground troops and air force and navy personnel, served in Vietnam; died as a result of the war and over 3, were wounded. A wounded digger, hurt in a booby-trap explosion, is evacuated to Vung Tau. Explore the Collection. Come and see why.

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